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The Extent of Tax Revenue Georgia Is Forgoing Due to the Lottery

Quick Intro

Imagine a scenario where the seventh-largest lottery market in the United States opts out of charging sales tax on lottery tickets, leading to a substantial loss in potential tax revenue. This is the current situation in Georgia, where the lottery has been exempt from sales tax since its inception 30 years ago. A recent audit by the University of Georgia’s Carl Vinson Institute of Government reveals that this exemption is set to cost the state approximately $230 million in tax revenue in fiscal year 2024.

The Rationale Behind Georgia’s Lottery Tax Exemption

Georgia’s lottery system, like many others, directly benefits its education sector by contributing millions of dollars annually. In 1993, when the lottery was legalized, lawmakers removed the sales tax on tickets, hoping this would boost sales and consequently increase funds for education.

The University of Georgia’s audit supports this rationale, projecting that the lack of sales tax will result in $5.5 billion in ticket sales over the next decade, leading to an additional $1.4 billion in educational funding. The audit also clarifies that legally, sales tax typically applies to physical property, and lottery tickets, representing a chance to win, don’t fall under this category. This exemption aligns with norms across the United States, with nearly all states refraining from taxing lottery tickets.

Potential Financial Benefits of Implementing a Lottery Sales Tax

While the current exemption boosts sales and subsequently aids the education system, the audit indicates that the economic impact of this exemption is suboptimal. Over the next decade, it’s estimated that the exemption will yield an 87-cent economic return for every dollar saved on sales tax. Conversely, introducing a sales tax could generate a $1.33 return for each dollar of tax collected.

One significant benefit of a lottery sales tax would be job creation. The audit points out that currently, every $1 million generated by the lottery creates about 18 jobs. However, a sales tax could increase this to 27 jobs per $1 million, potentially supporting over 6,100 jobs in the next 10 years.

Challenges and Implications of a Potential Sales Tax on Lottery Tickets

Despite the financial benefits, implementing a sales tax on lottery tickets in Georgia may not be feasible. The audit acknowledges that such a tax could negatively impact sales and disproportionately affect lower-income residents.

For instance, the inconvenience of paying with change due to added sales tax could lead to reduced ticket sales. Retailers might mitigate this by accepting debit card payments, but they are unlikely to do so because of transaction fees.

Moreover, the tax would have a more significant financial impact on lower-income individuals, who are more likely to purchase lottery tickets. The audit emphasizes that this could be seen as doubly regressive from both a tax and income perspective, highlighting the disproportionate burden on those with lower incomes.

Final Thoughts

Georgia’s exemption of sales tax on lottery tickets, while boosting educational funding, results in a significant loss of potential tax revenue. Although adding a sales tax could increase economic impact and job creation, it faces practical challenges and could disproportionately affect lower-income consumers. Balancing these factors presents a complex dilemma for policymakers considering changes to the state’s lottery tax policy.

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